The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) recognizes that children vary greatly in their cognitive and emotional development, medical conditions, and responses to pain and interventions. Infants, children, adolescents, and those with special health care needs can and do experience pain, and the majority of pain in the dental setting can be prevented or substantially relieved. The AAPD further recognizes that there are many therapeutics available to treat pain with varying dosages and/or regimens. Recent concerns have developed about toxicities associated with codeine.